The Energy Studies has been identified
the following research areas on the basis of current national and global demands
energy resources and sustainability
policy, auditing and management
Future energy resources and sustainability:
solar energy, and energy from biomass, water
current and wind are just a few of the promising alternatives for a cleaner and
greener future. Other
relatively new sources of energy such
as fuel cells, hydrogen fuel, geothermal energy, and ocean energy are
also being explored.
As the worldwide demand for power continues to surge, nuclear
energy is gaining increasing importance as a clean source that is expected to
address the global issue of climate change. There are currently 439
nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries worldwide.
Almost everything in this world ultimately derives its energy
from the sun. The earth receives about 174 billion megawatts of power in the
upper atmosphere as a result of solar radiation. About 30% of the incident
solar radiation is reflected back, while the remaining, which amounts to 3.85 ×
1024 Joules every year, is absorbed by the atmosphere, oceans and landmasses. Heat
and light radiation from the sun can be harnessed through the use of
semiconductor solar panels, solar collectors, solar cookers, solar coolers, etc.
Biofuel is the general term for energy derived from materials
such as wood, leaves, straw, oilseeds, or animal wastes which are or were
recent, living matter, referred to collectively as biomass. Wood pellets,
charcoal, bioethanol, biodiesel, pyro-oil, syngas, biogas, etc. are all examples
of energy-rich materials derived from biomass.
Hydropower schemes and wind farms are
constructed to harness mechanical energy from the water and wind, respectively and
convert it into electrical energy. These hydropower schemes and wind farms are
then connected to electrical power transmission networks for the distribution
of power. On average, only 20 to 40 percent of the total energy capacity of hydropower
schemes and wind farms can be utilized.
Fuel cells are similar to batteries but use reactants from an
external source, as opposed to batteries that are self-contained. If the fuel
and oxidant levels in fuel cells are properly maintained, power can be
generated almost continuously. The efficiency of fuel cells is proportional to
the power being drawn from it. They are also lightweight and extremely
Hydrogen is one of the clean energy sources. Hydrogen fuel can be produced through thermal processes, electrolytic processes, solar-driven processes and biological
processes. Hydrogen is an attractive fuel option
for transportation and electricity generation applications. It can be used in
cars, in houses, for portable power, and in many more applications.
The interior of the Earth contains a lot of heat. Shallow
regions contain hot water, rock and steam. Deeper inside, the magma is
intensely hot. This heat can be harnessed to produce electrical energy and
drive various applications. Harnessing geothermal energy requires no fuel and
minimal land. It is relatively cheap and a very sustainable source of energy
since the amount of heat contained in the earth bed is so vast that even if we
harness more energy than we require, it will still suffice for millions of
years to come.
The oceans are vast and contain huge amounts of energy in the
water currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The energy from tides and
waves can be harnessed to produce electrical energy. The differences in
temperature that occur with varying depths can be used to drive heat engines,
which in turn produce electric power.
Sustainable development is a
kind of development that satisfies the needs of the present without adversely
affecting the ability of future generations to satisfy their needs. Development
considering - human, social, economic and environmental - is known as the four pillars of sustainability. Harnessing
solar/ wind energy to provide power for homes, offices, and other buildings or
to pump water is one
of the best examples of sustainable development. After all, solar/ wind is a
clean and free resource.
New sources of power generation will
undoubtedly be needed to meet skyrocketing world energy demand. RUET
researchers are positioned to lead efforts to support a scalable, innovative,
and clean energy portfolio that meets the world’s need for reliable energy
sources while considering the economic, environmental, health and climate
effects of energy generation. These technologies include, but are not limited
and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) energy
Sustainability study of future energy systems
Smart energy systems:
A smart energy system is an
approach in which smart electricity, thermal and gas grids are combined with
storage technologies and coordinated to identify synergies between them in
order to achieve an optimal solution for each individual sector as well as for
the overall energy system. This means combining the electricity, thermal, and
transport sectors so that the flexibility across these different areas can
compensate for the lack of flexibility from renewable resources such as wind
and solar. The smart energy system is built around three grid infrastructures:
Smart electricity grids connect flexible
electricity demands such as heat pumps and electric vehicles to intermittent renewable resources such as wind and solar power.
Smart thermal grids (district heating and cooling) to
connect the electricity and heating sectors. This enables the utilization of
thermal storage for creating additional flexibility and the recycling of heat
losses in the energy system.
Smart gas grids connect the electricity, heating,
and transport sectors. This enables the utilization of gas storage for creating
additional flexibility. If the gas is refined to liquid fuel, then liquid
fuel storage can also be utilized.
IEES will foster and build knowledge in
smart energy systems by focusing on topics such as:
capture, storage and reuse (CCSR) technology
grid and net metering
system related to energy capturing/ transportation/ storage/ utilization
and so on.
3. Energy policy, auditing and
Energy policy has traditionally played a strong role in
setting the framework for regulations in the energy sector. Energy policy is the manner
in which a given entity (often governmental) has decided to address issues
including energy production,
distribution and consumption.Energy policies are the actions governments take to affect the demand
for energy as
well as the supply of it. These actions include the ways in which governments
disruptions and their efforts to influence energy consumption and economic growth. To achieve this goal,
measures such as technological progress, market regulation, and system guidance
have been taken to support the policy objectives
of promoting energy development
and ensuring a more adequate supply of energy, while encouraging energy conservation and efficiency, and controlling
rapid energy demand.
An energy audit is
an inspection survey and an analysis of energy flows for energy
conservation in a building. It may include a process or system to reduce
the amount of energy input
into the system without negatively affecting the output. Carried out by
experts, an energy audit involves
a comprehensive analysis of your premises, indicating how efficient your
current practices are and where you can reduce energy consumption and lower costs.
Energy management is the method of tracking and
optimizing energy consumption to conserve usage. Important steps for the technique of
energy management: (i) collecting and analyzing continuous data (ii) identify
optimizations in equipment schedules, setpoints and flow rates to improve
energy efficiency (iii) calculate return on investment (iv) execute energy
optimization solutions and (v) repeat step two to continue optimizing energy
IEES provides facilities for the development of knowledge in
energy policy, auditing and management by focusing on the following topics:
Energy policy (can be directed at four high-level
objectives: economic development, geopolitical security, environmental
enhancement, and public acceptability).
Energy planning and market
Integrated resource planning
Sustainable energy planning
audits (preliminary, targeted and detailed energy audits)